sábado, 27 de enero de 2007


Hola de nuevo, aquí les voy a publicar algunas características del uso de la sintaxis en ruby:

1) Creción de un nuevo objeto:
Supongamos que tenemos la siguiente clase:
ruby> class Fruta
ruby| def initialize
ruby| @kind = "manzana"
ruby| @condition = "madura"
ruby| end
ruby| end

ruby> miFruta = Fruta.new
Y listo, tenemos nuestra fruta creada.

2)Manejo de condicionales:
En ruby son sencillos, un ejemplo de condicional es el siguiente:

def fact(n)
if n == 0
n * fact(n-1)
También tenemos los clásicos "case":
ruby> i=8
ruby> case i
ruby| when 1, 2..5 (cuando se pone 2..5, es el rango entre 2 y 5)
ruby| print "1..5\n"
ruby| when 6..10
ruby| print "6..10\n"
ruby| end

3)Uso de las estructuras de control repetitivas:
Aquí esta un pequeño ejemplo de un while:
ruby> i = 0
ruby> print "#{i+=1}\n" while i < 3
b)For, a diferencia de otros lenguajes, los for's se manejan con colecciones, aquí tenemos dos ejemplos:
ruby> for num in (4..6) (El 4..6 es un rango, pero es una coleccion)
ruby| print num, "\n"
ruby| end

Y este es manejando un array:

ruby> for elm in [100,-9.6,"pickle"]
ruby| print "#{elm}\t(#{elm.type})\n"
ruby| end
100 (Fixnum)
-9.6 (Float)
pickle (String)
[100, -9.6, "pickle"]

4)Arrays. En ruby los arrays pueden almacenar objetos de diferentes tipos, y se declaran de la siguiente manera:

ruby> ary = [1, 2, "3"]
[1, 2, "3"]

Podemos concatenarlos también:

ruby> ary + ["foo", "bar"]
[1, 2, "3", "foo", "bar"]
ruby> ary * 2
[1, 2, "3", 1, 2, "3"]

También podemos usar índices numéricos para accesar a sus elementos:

ruby> ary[0]
ruby> ary[0,2]
[1, 2]
ruby> ary[-2]
ruby> ary[-2,2]
[2, "3"]
ruby> ary[-2..-1]
[2, "3"]

5) Manejo de cadenas. Las cadenas pueden estar entre comillas dobles (" ") o simples (' '):

ruby> "abc"
ruby> 'abc'

Las comillas simples y dobles a veces tienen efectos diferentes. Una cadena de comillas dobles
permite la presencia embebida de caracteres de escape precedidos por un backslash y la expresión
de evaluación #{ }. Una cadena de comillas simples no realiza esta evaluación, lo que se ve es
lo que se obtiene. Ejemplos:

ruby> print "a\nb\nc","\n"
ruby> print 'a\nb\nc',"\n"
ruby> "\n"
ruby> '\n'
ruby> "\001"
ruby> '\001'
ruby> "abcd #{5*3} efg"
"abcd 15 efg"
ruby> var = " abc "
" abc "
ruby> "1234#{var}5678"
"1234 abc 5678"

El manejo de las cadenas en Ruby es más inteligente e intuitivo que en C. Por ejemplo,
se pueden concatenar cadenas con + y se puede repetir una cadena varias veces con *:

ruby> "foo" + "bar"
ruby> "foo" * 2

6) Como se llama a un método en Ruby.
En ruby para llamar a un método, simplemente pones el objeto un punto (.) y el nombre del método, por ejemplo:

ruby> "abcdef".length

Nota: La evaluación #{}, nos trae el valor de la variable.

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